Friday, April 3, 2020
Reniassance Ergo The cities of Ancona and Pesaro were each a place of refuge for Marrano Jews in the early sixteenth-century. The Marranos (formally Sephardic and Portuguese Conversos) who settled in the cities of Ancona and Pesaro fled the Iberian Peninsula (Spain and Portugal) in the late fifteenth-century as result of the Spanish Inquisition. Many Jews sought refuge in Renaissance Italy, and initially found ?acceptance? by many of its local inhabitants. Cohabitation was tolerated on a marginal scale upon the arrival of the Sephardic Jews. The two cities Ancona and Pesaro located in Central Italy were similar in that mercantile commerce was the main source of revenue. Large Numbers of Marrano Jews in Ancona and Pesaro had established themselves as competent businessmen. During the sixteenth-century, the Catholic Church underwent a significant change. Accompanying this new change was conflict with the relatively new Converso (Jewish) population. The cities of Ancona and Pesaro experienced the effect s of Counter Reformation that led to Inquisition or ?Acts of Faith in the summer and spring of 1556. The political and economic reasons behind leaders and the pope acting the way they did against the Jews, was to prohibit Jews from being an economic power in Italy, and to force Jews in to a subservient role. The Spanish Inquisition forced Sephardic Jews of Spain and Converso Jews living in Portugal to relocate to Italy. ?The Spanish Inquisition was established with papal approval in 1478 at the Request of King Ferdinand V and Queen Isabella I. This Inquisition was to deal with the problems of the Marrano Jews, who through coercion or social pressure had insincerely converted to Christianity?. Many Catholics in Spain felt that the end (Second Coming of Christ) was coming soon and did not want any ?non believers? to have a negative effect on the coming of their Messiah. As a direct result, thousands of Sephardic and Converso Jews were expelled from Spain and Portugal. Many of these Jewish families had lived in either Spain or Portugal for hundreds of years, but still faced the total eviction from their homes and personal property. We began to see Jews relocating to Italy in about 1492. The cities of Ancona and Pesaro like many cities in Italy, served as a place of refuge for many of the expelled Jews. These two cities were different from most, because they each possessed harbors, and had relatively small populations. This was beneficial to the small Jewish communities because they had the opportunity to participate in the business realm. Initially, upon the arrival of the Marrano Jews they were accepted with little discretion. At the time, the Catholic Church had tolerant attitudes towards the Jewish community. ?Pope Paul III adhered to the opinion of his counselors, who considered forced baptism null and void, and he allowed the settlement of conversos in the territories of the State of the Church, particularly at Ancona, where the newcomers were expected to make a positive contribution to the development of the economy?. We must understand that the Church was an elite power during the Renaissance. The Catholic Church dictated political policy, imposed taxes, rais ed armies, punished criminals, and held trials throughout the sixteenth- century. In essence, the Church's premise in allowing Jews to occupy various regions of Italy that were under Papal control was financially motivated. Many of the Jews who now found themselves living in Italy had a relatively easy time reestablishing the type of lives and positions that they held in their former homeland. A direct example was Marrano, ? Dr. Francisco Barboso, who had acquired riches and fame?and treated the governor of the city, and prior of local Dominican convent?. In addition, many Jews were involved in the money lending industry and pawnshops. Many Jews were also involved in trade with Levantine merchants. The Jewish population was prospering and things looked to be going well. The events that occurred throughout the latter half of the sixteenth- century, in Ancona and Pesaro were the effects of Counter Reformation. This began at the turn of the century with the expulsion of Jews from Spain and later Portugal. The desire of the Catholic Church to enforce its presence in Italy led to the Inquisitions in the 1530's, initially against
Sunday, March 8, 2020
Critical review of casablanca essays Casablanca shows a heroes quest to find the right thing to do when rekindled desire conflicts with manifest duty. Ultimately, the priorities are set out and the necessary sacrifices are accepted. This underlying message can be seen through numerous characters, but predominantly through Rick Blaine, the own of Caf Americain. Throughout Casablanca, it can be seen that Blaine is extremely diverse. Valor, sacrifice and heroism are shown throughout the film. Each human action is driven by the benefit of its results; self-interest is never put aside. A highly respected business an, Rick runs a chic and expensive caf which possess an air of sophistication and intrigue; one crowded with Europeans in dinner jackets accompanied by their bejeweled, beautiful partners. Determined to remain at high social status, Rick tries to keep himself desirable. An example of this is that he never has drinks with customers in the caf. His actions never cease to impress his customers, infinitely adding to his popularity in Casablanca. Man should and will use all means to preserve and defend is body and members thereof from death and sorrows, no matter what the circumstances. Likewise, other citizens of Casablanca encourage Ricks actions and help in maintaining his status. Throughout the movie, Rick seems to have a detached attitude towards life, but we soon see a change once an object of desire enters back into his life. Upon the reappearance of his former lover, Rick transforms from a man of action to a man disillusioned in love, unsure of what is right. Rick is revealed as only seemingly tough on the outside and not so much tender as sentimental on the inside. This reveal is given by a statement made by Captain Renault to Rick. Captain Renault says to Rick: Ricky, I suspect that under that cynical shell youre at heart a sentimentalist. Virtue is whatever mental action or quality gives to a spectato ...
Friday, February 21, 2020
Prison system in America - Essay Example Arguments against imprisonment include the idea that prison is not being used as a last resort to deter criminal behavior, housing prisoners is expensive, imprisonment doesnÃ¢â¬â¢t deter crime and it is cruel and inhumane. Despite statistics that confirm these contentions, imprisonment has experienced a growing attraction as a political response to crime. An increased prison population and its inherent human and financial costs have little effect on the attitudes of some. Despite the obvious and extensive failures of our penitentiary system, more people are being sent to prison for more reasons primarily as a result of tougher sentencing laws specifically involving the Ã¢â¬Ëwar on drugs.Ã¢â¬â¢ Over the past quarter century, the U.S. has added to its prison population and therefore to its social problems. Anyone who has seen a prison movie likely has witnessed the stereotypical Ã¢â¬Ëshower sceneÃ¢â¬â¢ where gang members viciously attack a lone inmate. They put a knife tightl y against the victimÃ¢â¬â¢s throat and threaten to kill him if he puts up a fight. The lone inmate is then repeatedly raped by the gang and afterwards is too frightened to notify prison officials fearing retribution. This Hollywood recreation is not unlike the actual events taking place inside prison walls. Being brutally raped in prison is not simply a physical violation; it is an emotionally scarring event. According to the Human Rights Watch, this and other forms of gang-related violence occur regularly in prisons across the country. Ã¢â¬Å"Gang assaults are not uncommon, and victims may be left beaten, bloody and, in the most extreme cases, deadÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"No EscapeÃ¢â¬ ). However, violent and blatant rapes are but one type of sexual abuse many prisoners must endure. The most prevalent form of rape does not occur by means of violence nor have many of the victims been overtly threatened. Nevertheless, they engage in sex acts unwillingly because they do not believe they ha ve a choice. Prison is an intimidating place. Prisoners, especially those new to the system can be easily coerced into doing things such as allowing themselves to be raped or committing violent acts against others out of fear. This type of prison rape is easier to conceal than violent attacks and much easier for prison staff and the general public to ignore. Ã¢â¬Å"For some prisoners, the atmosphere of fear and intimidation is so overwhelming that they acquiesce in their sexual exploitation without putting up any obvious resistanceÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"No Escape,Ã¢â¬ 2006). The intimidation begins early and forcefully. According to the account of a first-time offender arriving in prison, Ã¢â¬Å"as soon as I walked on the wing, the catcalls started.Ã¢â¬ According to another prisoner, Ã¢â¬Å"Most of prison is a mind game. People get taken advantage of when theyÃ¢â¬â¢re green and donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what to expectÃ¢â¬ (Ã¢â¬Å"No Escape,Ã¢â¬ 2006). Prison is described by its detra ctors as inhumane, a brutalizing and damaging experience. The prevalent imprisonment trend invokes a high human cost to those who caused no harm to another individual or property. The war on drugs is policy based on morals, not on public health, and is taking a grave toll on the economics and civil liberties of our society. Crime is on the rise overcrowding the prison system while inner cities are becoming unlivable decreasing chances for the economic revival in those areas, all as a consequence of a misguided war on drugs to prevent the misuse of drugs. These governmental drug programs have had very little if any reduction in the use of drugs but a great many innocent victims have had their lives ruined. Ã¢â¬Å"
Wednesday, February 5, 2020
Outline the stages of specimen reception and initial processing, highlighting particular safety issues - Essay Example Once the primary specimen is received in the laboratory, a quick assessment is carried out regarding any clinical risk. Such risks include damage, leakage, missing request form, inadequate labeling, wrong sample sent for requested test or the clinical information does not match the blood sample. However, if a risk has been flagged, it will fall under the Clinical Risk Management guidelines. If there is no clinical risk to be dealt with, the specimen will proceed to the next stage. The sample and the request form have to show the patient demographics. Patient demographics refers to the information that identifies the patient and provides other data that is important to the clinician in coming up with a diagnosis. Demographics consists of the patientÃ¢â¬â¢s name, hospital number, and date of birth. Missing demographic data makes the specimen a clinical risk, and a request for a new sample is sent to the requestor. Other instances where the sample can be classified as inadequately labeled include those samples that are not accompanied by supporting paperwork, and those that are labeled differently from the request form in such cases, a request for a new sample is sent to the requestor If the details match the sample, the specimen will be taken for further assessment in the laboratory. Some exceptions can be made in certain situations, especially if there is a need to protect the identity of the one from whom the sample has been obtained. An example of such a s ituation is in the case of an unrelated bone marrow donor whose identity has been protected using an international code for identification based on the Patient International Data Protection. After the clinician has verified that the specimen identification matches the request form, the anticoagulant tube is then checked to ascertain that the correct sample has been sent to the laboratory. For HLA genotyping, an EDTA anticoagulant
Monday, January 27, 2020
Macbeths Ambition Macbeth goes through a steadily detrimental transformation in Shakespeares play Macbeth. Macbeth goes from being a conscientious, compassionate, logical and caring man in the beginning of the play and becoming logical, compassionate, caring, and conscientious man in the beginning of the play and becoming a cruel and insensitive excuse of a human being. His change in behavior from compassionate to insensitive and logical to illogical develops slowly, but surely. Macbeth shows that he is capable at his height in being compassionate and logical, which can be seen while he contemplates killing Duncan and in his final decision on the matter. Later, we see evidence of a descent from this when he is deciding to kill Banquo: his motives change, and he becomes less logical, less able to see the reasons against the deed. Finally, Macbeth shows that he has lost it all. Sanity, compassion, logic, everything is gone that once had been so evident at the beginning of the play. Macbeth becomes jaded and cynical, apathetically hopeless, a mass of entity that had once lived in honor. In trying to decide whether or not to murder Duncan in his soliloquy in Act I Scene VII, both the process by which Macbeth makes his decision and the final decision that he will not murder his king are indicative of conscience and thoughtfulness, morality and compassion. This is the high point from which Macbeth will fall. It is important to understand that he overcomes both the temptation of inherent ambition as well as provocation from his wife in regards to his fateful decision. He is on top of his own actions and decisions: compassion, an ethical attribute, takes precedence over vaulting ambition. However he firstly shows he is well aware of the punitive consequences of the murder, so he admits he would commit the assassination if it were the be-all and the end-all, lacking any negative repercussions. The fact that he can understand the judgment here shows he is thinking ahead. Then, he literally states what may happen; that the bloody instructions, murderous acts, may return to plague the inventor, comeback to murder he who committed murder in the first place. Only a person in a focused state of mind is able to grapple with specific potential consequences. Furthermore, he then goes through a laundry list of ethical reasons not to murder Duncan: I am his kinsman and his subject/ Strong both against the deed. He realizes, in a logical progression on these ethical points against the deed that he should protect Duncan, shut the door from the murderer not bear the knife [him]self. Here, he shows that he understands the responsibilities of being a host and a kinsman, and he is seen respecting the laws of hospitality in spite of tremendous external and internal pressure. He shows he cares. Then, Macbeth acknowledges that Duncan has borne his faculties so meekÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¹been so fair in officeÃ ¢Ã¢â ¬Ã ¹that his virtues will plead like angels, and pity, like a naked new-born babe,Ãâ¦Ã /Shall blow the horrid dead in every eye. Macbeth, in comparing virt ues to angels, shows us that in his present state of mind, he sees morality as something to strive for, as angels are the representative pinnacle of morality. Furthermore he believes the murder to be a horrid or in this case immoral deed, proving he is able to differentiate good from bad. The metaphor of the baby, who represents pity, shows that Macbeth understands that pity is pure, like a baby, untainted by immorality and vaulting ambition. Macbeth shows he aspires to be moral, because his final and adamant decision is in accordance with what pity demands. He is not at all numb to the idea of murder; he is virtually repulsed by it. In his soliloquy in Act III Scene I, Macbeth is shown to have descended dramatically from his original state: he is jealous, fearful, and certainly not compassionate. He finds no reason not to kill Banquo as he had with Duncan, though Macbeth freely admits that Banquo has a royal nature. The usage of royal here means Macbeth still can tell wrong from right, good nature from bad nature. But this does not in any way deter Macbeth from killing Banquo as it did with Duncan. Macbeth says, To be [king] is nothing; /But to be safely thus meaning that the only way to achieve safety, which Macbeth equates to happiness, is to slaughter Banquo. What is striking here is what is missing: there is no pro-con list, no reasons against the murder. We are also shown here by what is not said that Macbeth is losing his pragmatic skills, because logic dictates that for him to commit another cold-blooded murder, the first having already driven him to incurable insomnia, would cause him only to spiral furt her and further away from happiness. The fact that he doesnt consider Banquos morality as a reason against killing him shows that Macbeth is on his way to being totally numb when dealing with death and murder. And, instead of being thoughtful, Macbeth is blinded by fear and jealousy, because his genius is rebukd [by Banquo]. This fear is clear when he says explicitly that there is none but he /Whose being I do fear. Banquo is the only one Macbeth fears. Also, before he was concerned with the laws of hospitality which include modesty, and now by contradiction he calls himself genius and even compares himself to Caesar. His jealousy, not ambition like before, drives him to have contempt for the wis[e] Banquo, because Banquo, according to the witches, is father to a line of kings which means Macbeth has a fruitless crown. The why of the fear is explained by implication when Macbeth states that the barren scepter or pointless symbol of Macbeths status as king, will be wrenchd with an un lineal hand from his gripe. To wrench is to take forcefully, inspiring fear. This fear later turns to regret, as he says that only for Banquos descendants, only for them, rather than for himself has he murdered the gracious Duncan. In his mind, this means that he has sold his soul, his eternal jewel, to the common enemy of man Satan. This metaphor shows self-acknowledged moral decay, which is a double-sided coin: morally he has indeed decayed, and yet he can still recognize it, which is a step in the right direction. But he is so melodramatic about this point (the two exclamation marks: kings! and utterance!) that he is perhaps losing control over his words if not his sanity, which is confirmed concretely when Banquos ghost emerges from Macbeths tortured psyche later. Total descent is on the horizon. At first he cares about the morality of Duncan and himself. Pity had played an integral role in his life. Now he cares only for his own well-being. The next step is total apathy. By Act V Scene V, Macbeth has fallen entirely from his original state. He has lost all compassion, all conscience, even all fear. In essence, Macbeth is totally numb from life. He says explicitly that he cares so little that he has almost forgot[ten] the taste of fears. Progressively his fears had narrowed: originally he feared the punitive and moral consequences of killing Duncan. At least later he had feared Banquo though for less noble reasons. Now he fears almost nothing. A night-shriek can no longer rouse and stir him because he has suppd full with horrors. The only way horror could become unable to start Macbeth would be if he is too numb even to be able to recognize it. At the beginning, as shown, he is repulsed by the horror of murder; now he is too familiar with slaughterous thoughts even to be frightened. The word slaughterous implies violent, almost gory thoughts, which convey the extent to which Macbeth truly is numb to blood. Macbeth is then told that his wife is dead. S ummarily his reaction is one of apathetic despair, which is a huge fall even from caring about being safely king (in deciding to murder Banquo). He only says about his wife that she should have died hereafter, that she would have died sometime in any case. By saying this, Macbeth shows he no longer thinks of time as we do. Obviously, everyone dies, including his wife, but he fails to acknowledge or even care about the time that he could have spent with his dearest partner in greatness between her present death and when she would have died naturally. In fact, his new attitude of time is jaded, awful, hopeless. The monotony of the sound of the phrase to-morrow, and to-morrow, and to-morrow shows he feels that time truly is just many different paths leading to the same inevitable conclusion: dusty death. All of our yesterdays lead to this death. He leaves no loophole to beat this cynical system of existence. He even urges death on, in relation to himself, saying Out, out brief candle! The image of a candle slowly flickering away is Macbeths way of conveying poetically that life is truly nothing more that an empty shell approaching death, a walking shadowÃâ¦Ã that frets his hour upon the stage. The word frets implies wasting time. This candle is then heard no more, so therefore its existence, Macbeths existence, is pointless. Even though life is full of sound and fury, powerful events, it still signif[ies] nothing. Life is hollow. The descent is complete. He doesnt care for his wife, nor himself, because life is just a tale told by an idiot. Life, that which Macbeth had hoped to live safely and happily, has now been concluded to be insignificant, a waste of time. Concerning the difference between good and bad, life now for Macbeth is all gray, clouded by cynicism. He simply does not care anymore, because if something signif[ies] nothing then it means nothing. And if one finds no meaning in life, one certainly doesnt care about petty distinctions, such as good versus bad, morality versus immorality, life versus death. Nothing can be lower, emotionally, than this point in Macbeths regression. By depicting Macbeths regression from compassion to apathy, Shakespeare warns us that one should not try to exceed ones set manhood, as Macbeth says, I dare do all that may become a man; /Who dares do more, is none. He does dare to do more and consequently ends up as none. Shakespeare summarizes the entire play in a single quotation. By trying to please his wife, trying to prove to her his love, Macbeth violates his idea about what a man is. Up to that point he had been brave and even moral in defending his king Duncan on the battlefield. To him, this is what a man is. Now, for his wife, he goes beyond this definition, in a realm that is paradoxically so manly that it truly is not manly; it is a bravado. It is as if Macbeth is dared into drinking so much of the wine of ambition that he ends up first drunk, then dead. The first wife-inspired big sip is in murdering his king. This is clearly where he goes wrong, because his decision to kill Duncan ultimately leads to his destruction. Works Cited and Consulted: Adelman, Janet. Escaping the Matrix: The Construction of Masculinity in Macbeth and Coriolanus. Shakespeares Late Tragedies, ed. Susan L. Wofford. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1996, 134-167. Garber, Marjorie. Macbeth: The Male Medusa. Shakespeares Late Tragedies, ed. Susan L. Wofford. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall, Inc. 1996, 74-103. Keirnan, Victor. Eight Tragedies of Shakespeare: A Marxist Study. London, NY: Verso, 1996. Nelson, T.A. ENGL 533 lecture February 18, 1999. Stallybrass, Peter. Macbeth and Witchcraft. Shakespeares Late Tragedies, ed. Susan L. Wofford. Upper Saddle River, NJ: Prentice-Hall Inc. 1996, 104-118. Staunton, Howard, ed. The Globe Illustrated Shakespeare. New York: Gramercy Books, 1979. Watson, Robert N. Shakespeare and the Hazards of Ambition. Cambidge, MA: Harvard University Press, 1984
Sunday, January 19, 2020
Food and Agriculture in Panama Agriculture is big business in Panama. Not only does it account for much of the country's exports (over 50%), but subsistence farming still employs many Panamanians who only grow enough food to feed their families (nationalencyclopedia.com). The main crop in Panama is bananas by a large margin, and is also one of the countries largest exports. Besides bananas, the other main exports are sugar and coffee beans, while the largest domestic crops are corn, rice, cocoanuts, tobacco and the exotic root vegetable yucca (Bennett 78). In spite of the fact that agriculture employs a large portion of the population and uses approximately half of the land, agriculture in Panama is in trouble. PanamaÃ¢â¬â¢s tropical maritime climate poses some restrictions to the growth of crops, but the troubling issue at hand is the erosion of soils. As PanamaÃ¢â¬â¢s population grows rapidly and the rainforest is cleared, overuse of soils and improper agricultural methods are threatening t he growth of crops and draining Panamanian soils. As much of PanamaÃ¢â¬â¢s political history and current economy is tied to agriculture, this is an issue that will raise many questions for the future of Panama. Bananas have a long history in Panama. Bananas are grown best in humid lowland regions, and in Panama, this means on the Atlantic side of the country (Bennett 70). Production does, however, extend to the Pacific side of Panama with successful irrigation methods (Bennett 71). United Fruit, an American company, moved into Panama in 1899, and owned as much as 70% of the Panamanian banana industry up until the 1970Ã¢â¬â¢s (country-studies.com). As bananas can count for as much as 33% of PanamaÃ¢â¬â¢s total exports, very li... ...e and thus crop yields are declining (Croat 465). To avoid an agricultural crisis, sustainable agricultural practices must be developed and implemented in Panama. Works Cited Bennet, H. (1926). Agriculture in Central America. Annals of the Association of American Geographers, Vol. 16, No.2. pp. 63-84. http://www.country-studies.com/. Agriculture. Retrieved 11/27/07 from www.country-studies.com/panama/agriculture.html. Croat, T. (1972). The Role of Overpopulation and Agricultural Methods in the Destruction of Tropical Ecosystems. Bioscience, Vol.22, No. 8. pp. 465-467. http://www.frommers.com/. Food and Drink. Retrieved 11/27/07 from www.frommers.com/destination/panama/3285020880.html. www.nationsencyclopedia.com . Panama Agriculture. Retrieved 11/27/07 from www.nationsencyclopedia.com/economies/Americas/Panama-AGRICULTURE.html.
Saturday, January 11, 2020
* A learning objective answers the question: What is it that your students should be able to do at the end of the class session and course that they could not do before? * A learning objective makes clear the intended learning outcome rather than what form the instruction will take. * Learning objectives focus on student performance. Action verbs that are specific, such as list, describes, report, compare, demonstrate, and analyze, should state the behaviors students will be expected to perform. Well-written learning objectives can give students precise statements of what is expected of them and provide guidelines for assessing student progress. Our goal for students is learning and if students donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what they should be able to do at the end of class then it will be difficult for them to reach that goal. Clearly defined objectives form the foundation for selecting appropriate content, learning activities, and assessment measures. If objectives of the course are not clearl y understood by both instructor and students, if the learning activities do not relate to the objectives and the content that you think is important, then your methods of assessment, which are supposed to indicate to both learner and instructor how effective the learning and teaching process has been, will be at best misleading, and, at worst, irrelevant or unfair. Learning objectives Specific statements describing what you and your students intend to achieve as a result of learning that occurs both in class and outside of class. They can be categorized in the following way: 1. Cognitive objectives emphasize knowing, conceptualizing, comprehending, applying, synthesizing, and evaluating. These objectives deal with studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge of the subject matter, and how students demonstrate this knowledge. 2. Psychomotor objectives involve the physical skills and dexterity related to the instruction. Successful instruction involves teaching new skills or coordination of old ones Attitudinal objectives Specific statements about attitudes, values and emotions, which students will have as a result of taking part in class activities. What learning objectives emphasize Learning objectives emphasize observed activity, student activity and student outcomes. Advantages of using learning objectives Writing and using learning objectives has numerous advantages. Writing learning objectives using BloomÃ¢â¬â¢s Taxonomy BloomÃ¢â¬â¢s Taxonomy of the cognitive domain, or thinking skills, can be helpful in constructing course learning objectives. Bloom and colleagues found that over 95% of exam questions required students to activate low-level thinking skills such as recall (1956). In addition, research has shown that students remember more content when they have learned a topic through higher thinking skills such as application or evaluation. Using BloomÃ¢â¬â¢s Taxonomy as a guide, you can create learning objectives and exam questions that activate and assess different, as well as higher, levels of student thinking. BloomÃ¢â¬â¢s Taxonomy BloomÃ¢â¬â¢s Taxonomy is a hierarchy of six cognitive skills arranged from less to more complex. Knowledge Recognizes studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to use rote memorization and recall certain facts. Action verbs to help write objectives or exam questions for this domain: cite, define, identify, label, list, match, name, recognize, reproduce, select, state. Example Learning objectives| Exam questions| The students will recall the four major food groups without error.| Name the four major food groups.| The students will list at least three characteristics peculiar to the Cubist movement.| List three characteristics that are unique to the Cubist movement.| The students will be able to define gram-positive bacteria.| Define gram-positive bacteria.| Comprehension Involves studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to read course content, understand and interpret important information and put otherÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas into their own words. Action verbs to help write objectives or exam questions for this domain: classify, convert, describe, distinguish between, explain, extend, give examples, illustrate, interpret, paraphrase, summarize, translate. Example Learning objectives| Exam questions| The students will summarize the main events of a story in grammatically correct English.| Using grammatically correct English, please summarize the main events Ã¢â¬â in three or four sentences Ã¢â¬â from the news story given below.| The students will describe in prose what is shown in graph form.| Given a graph of production trends in automobiles, describe what the graph represents in a memo to your boss.| From a Ã¢â¬Å"story-problemÃ¢â¬ description, students will convert the story to a mathematical manipulation needed to solve the problem.| A researcher wonders whether attending a private high school leads to higher or lower performance on an exam of social skills. A random sample of 100 students from a private school produces a mean score of 71.30 on the exam, and the national mean score for students from public schools is 75.62 (s x = 29.0). Convert the information in this word problem into a mathematical representation that will enable you to solve the problem.| Application Students take new concepts and apply them to another situation. Action verbs to help write objectives or exam questions for this domain: apply, arrange, compute, construct, demonstrate, discover, modify, operate,predict, prepare, produce, relate, show, solve, use. Example Learning objectives| Exam questions| The students will multiply ractions in class with 90 percent accuracy.| Solve for the ten following fraction multiplication problems. Please make sure to show all your work.| The students will apply previously learned information about socialism to reach an answer.| According to our definition of socialism, which of the following nations would be considered to be socialist?| The students will demonstrate the principle of reinforcement to classroom interactions.| In a teaching simulation with your peers role-playing 6th grade students, demonstrate the principle of reinforcement in classroom interactions and prepare a Ã ½ page description of what happened during the simulation that validated the principle.| Analysis Students have the ability to take new information and break it down into parts to differentiate between them. Action verbs to help write objectives or exam questions for this domain: analyze, associate, determine, diagram, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, estimate, infer, order, outline, point out, separate, subdivide. Example Learning objectives| Exam questions| The students will read a presidential debate and point out the passages that attack a political opponent personally rather than the opponentÃ¢â¬â¢s political programs.| From the short presidential debate transcribed below: Differentiate the passages that attacked a political opponent personally, and those that attacked an opponentÃ¢â¬â¢s political programs.| The students will point out the positive and negative points presented in an argument for the abolition of guns.| From the argument given below, analyze the positive and negative points presented concerning the abolition of guns and write a brief (2-3 page) narrative of your analysis.| Students will discriminate among a list of possible steps to determine which one(s) would lead to increased reliability for a test.| Determine which of the following steps would most likely lead to an increase in the reliability estimate for a test: * Increasing the number of persons tested from 500 to 1,000. * Selecting items so that half were very difficult and half very easy * Increasing the length of the test with more of the same kinds of items * Increasing the homogeneity of the group of subjects tested.| Synthesis Students are able to take various pieces of information and form a whole creating a pattern where one did not previously exist. Action verbs to help write objectives or exam questions for this domain: combine, compile, compose, construct, create, design, develop, devise, formulate, integrate, modify, organize, plan, propose, rearrange, reorganize, revise, rewrite, tell, write. Example Learning objectives| Exam questions| The students will write a different but plausible ending to a short story.| Develop one plausible ending for all three short stories below.| After studying the current economic policies of the United States, student groups will design their own goals for fiscal and monetary policies.| Working in your groups and considering the current economic policies of the US that we have been studying, develop your goals for employment, price levels, and rate of real economic growth for the next three years. Write these goals on the newsprint and be ready to discuss why your goals are feasible.| The students will design a series of chemical operations to separate quantitatively the elements in a solution.| In the lab, you will be given a solution to analyze to see what elements make up the solution. Then design a series of chemical operations to separate quantitatively the elements in the solution.| Evaluation Involves studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to look at someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas or principles and see the worth of the work and the value of the conclusions. Action verbs to help write objectives or exam questions for this domain: appraise, assess, compare, conclude, contrast, criticize, discriminate, evaluate, judge, justify, support, weigh. Example Learning objectives| Exam questions| The students will use the principles of socialism to evaluate the US economic system.| Using the basic principles of socialism discussed in this course, evaluate the US economic system by providing key arguments to support your judgment.| Given any research study, evaluate the appropriateness of the conclusions reached based on the data presented.| For years, misinformation about negative effects of aspartame has proliferated on the internet. The committee evaluated peer-reviewed research from the scientific literature on this topic and concluded: Ã¢â¬Å"Aspartame consumption is not associated with adverse effects in the general populationÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬â Given the data weÃ¢â¬â¢ve looked at on this topic, evaluate how appropriate this conclusion is and defend your answer.| The students will compare two pieces of sculpture, giving reasons for their positive evaluation of one over the other.| Two pieces of sculpture from different eras and artists are displayed. Study these two pieces, use the compare-contrast method to determine which piece you prefer and write a 2-3 page report that describes your thinking process as you studied these pieces. Utilize the skills you have learned as we have studied various pieces of sculpture over the past two weeks.| Advantages of using learning objectives The writing of learning objectives focuses attention away from content and onto the students. This re-focusing often produces revisions in teaching methods. 1. Managing instruction: Objectives may be used by instructors and students to sort and direct learners and learning activities. They may be used for systematic pre-testing, allowing into the course students who demonstrate the required pre-requisite behaviors, redirecting to remedial work those who lack the pre-requisites, skipping ahead those who already have acquired the behaviors that the unit is designed to teach. 2. 3. Managing learning: Whereas management of instruction implies that the control rests with the instructor, management of learning suggests a more active role by the student. Students can use objectives to guide their learning efforts Ã¢â¬â choosing appropriate materials, reading selectively, etc. Objectives can also be used for self-evaluation which may direct the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts (e.g., skipping ahead or reviewing). When students are involved in determining objectives they develop an awareness of the difficulties in defining what it is they want to learn and of choosing from among equally attractive options. 4. Planning instruction: Once you have developed learning objectives for a course you can more rationally sequence instruction, allot time to topics, assemble materials, prepare outlines and booklists, etc. Learning objectives can also be used as a guide to teaching, as when you plan different instructional methods for presenting various types of content based on the desired learning outcomes (e.g., small-group editing of reports to give students experience in evaluating content logic and correct usage). A re-examination of course content may result from a look at the learning objectives for the course. After comparing previous examinations with your newly developed learning objectives, you may discover that you have been testing materials which are illustrative, but which are not really essential to the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ mastery of the content/concepts. 5. Enhancing learning: If the student has a set of learning objectives which provide information about the content to be learned and the way in which he/she will have to demonstrate adequate knowledge, that student can make more appropriate choices about study methods and content emphasis. 6. Facilitating evaluation: Learning objectives can facilitate various evaluation activities, evaluating students, evaluating instruction, evaluating the curriculum. They can form the basis for grading or for determining levels of competence in a mastery learning system. They can also be used to demonstrate effective teaching by matching student learning, as measured by exams, etc., to the desired outcomes. 7. Aiding in communication with others: There is a need to communicate learning objectives to others: between instructor and student, with TAs, with other instructors. For example, exchanging learning objectives within departments is the most specific way to communicate to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s colleagues what you really cover in your course. An objectives exchange might reduce redundancy in the curriculum. 8. Designing or redesigning curriculum: If you intend to improve instruction in a particular course, you usually begin with the learning objectives for that course and program outcomes for the program and work backwards. * Sets of learning objectives for one course may be compared with the expected entry behaviors for the next course in the sequence. The two should interlock; where they do not, curriculum adjustments can be made. * Study of the existing curriculum can draw attention to redundancy and omissions that can lead to curriculum revision. 9. Producing new insights: The process of clarifying objectives may produce major changes in those who engage in the effort. For example, instructors who spend time developing learning objectives are said to acquire increased understanding about what is a feasible goal. When more general goals are explicitly identified, many specific sub-goals emerge. Since it may not be possible to reach all the sub-goals, a hierarchy or Ã¢â¬Å"trade-off systemÃ¢â¬ of goals must be produced.