Saturday, January 11, 2020
* A learning objective answers the question: What is it that your students should be able to do at the end of the class session and course that they could not do before? * A learning objective makes clear the intended learning outcome rather than what form the instruction will take. * Learning objectives focus on student performance. Action verbs that are specific, such as list, describes, report, compare, demonstrate, and analyze, should state the behaviors students will be expected to perform. Well-written learning objectives can give students precise statements of what is expected of them and provide guidelines for assessing student progress. Our goal for students is learning and if students donÃ¢â¬â¢t know what they should be able to do at the end of class then it will be difficult for them to reach that goal. Clearly defined objectives form the foundation for selecting appropriate content, learning activities, and assessment measures. If objectives of the course are not clearl y understood by both instructor and students, if the learning activities do not relate to the objectives and the content that you think is important, then your methods of assessment, which are supposed to indicate to both learner and instructor how effective the learning and teaching process has been, will be at best misleading, and, at worst, irrelevant or unfair. Learning objectives Specific statements describing what you and your students intend to achieve as a result of learning that occurs both in class and outside of class. They can be categorized in the following way: 1. Cognitive objectives emphasize knowing, conceptualizing, comprehending, applying, synthesizing, and evaluating. These objectives deal with studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ knowledge of the subject matter, and how students demonstrate this knowledge. 2. Psychomotor objectives involve the physical skills and dexterity related to the instruction. Successful instruction involves teaching new skills or coordination of old ones Attitudinal objectives Specific statements about attitudes, values and emotions, which students will have as a result of taking part in class activities. What learning objectives emphasize Learning objectives emphasize observed activity, student activity and student outcomes. Advantages of using learning objectives Writing and using learning objectives has numerous advantages. Writing learning objectives using BloomÃ¢â¬â¢s Taxonomy BloomÃ¢â¬â¢s Taxonomy of the cognitive domain, or thinking skills, can be helpful in constructing course learning objectives. Bloom and colleagues found that over 95% of exam questions required students to activate low-level thinking skills such as recall (1956). In addition, research has shown that students remember more content when they have learned a topic through higher thinking skills such as application or evaluation. Using BloomÃ¢â¬â¢s Taxonomy as a guide, you can create learning objectives and exam questions that activate and assess different, as well as higher, levels of student thinking. BloomÃ¢â¬â¢s Taxonomy BloomÃ¢â¬â¢s Taxonomy is a hierarchy of six cognitive skills arranged from less to more complex. Knowledge Recognizes studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to use rote memorization and recall certain facts. Action verbs to help write objectives or exam questions for this domain: cite, define, identify, label, list, match, name, recognize, reproduce, select, state. Example Learning objectives| Exam questions| The students will recall the four major food groups without error.| Name the four major food groups.| The students will list at least three characteristics peculiar to the Cubist movement.| List three characteristics that are unique to the Cubist movement.| The students will be able to define gram-positive bacteria.| Define gram-positive bacteria.| Comprehension Involves studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to read course content, understand and interpret important information and put otherÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas into their own words. Action verbs to help write objectives or exam questions for this domain: classify, convert, describe, distinguish between, explain, extend, give examples, illustrate, interpret, paraphrase, summarize, translate. Example Learning objectives| Exam questions| The students will summarize the main events of a story in grammatically correct English.| Using grammatically correct English, please summarize the main events Ã¢â¬â in three or four sentences Ã¢â¬â from the news story given below.| The students will describe in prose what is shown in graph form.| Given a graph of production trends in automobiles, describe what the graph represents in a memo to your boss.| From a Ã¢â¬Å"story-problemÃ¢â¬ description, students will convert the story to a mathematical manipulation needed to solve the problem.| A researcher wonders whether attending a private high school leads to higher or lower performance on an exam of social skills. A random sample of 100 students from a private school produces a mean score of 71.30 on the exam, and the national mean score for students from public schools is 75.62 (s x = 29.0). Convert the information in this word problem into a mathematical representation that will enable you to solve the problem.| Application Students take new concepts and apply them to another situation. Action verbs to help write objectives or exam questions for this domain: apply, arrange, compute, construct, demonstrate, discover, modify, operate,predict, prepare, produce, relate, show, solve, use. Example Learning objectives| Exam questions| The students will multiply ractions in class with 90 percent accuracy.| Solve for the ten following fraction multiplication problems. Please make sure to show all your work.| The students will apply previously learned information about socialism to reach an answer.| According to our definition of socialism, which of the following nations would be considered to be socialist?| The students will demonstrate the principle of reinforcement to classroom interactions.| In a teaching simulation with your peers role-playing 6th grade students, demonstrate the principle of reinforcement in classroom interactions and prepare a Ã ½ page description of what happened during the simulation that validated the principle.| Analysis Students have the ability to take new information and break it down into parts to differentiate between them. Action verbs to help write objectives or exam questions for this domain: analyze, associate, determine, diagram, differentiate, discriminate, distinguish, estimate, infer, order, outline, point out, separate, subdivide. Example Learning objectives| Exam questions| The students will read a presidential debate and point out the passages that attack a political opponent personally rather than the opponentÃ¢â¬â¢s political programs.| From the short presidential debate transcribed below: Differentiate the passages that attacked a political opponent personally, and those that attacked an opponentÃ¢â¬â¢s political programs.| The students will point out the positive and negative points presented in an argument for the abolition of guns.| From the argument given below, analyze the positive and negative points presented concerning the abolition of guns and write a brief (2-3 page) narrative of your analysis.| Students will discriminate among a list of possible steps to determine which one(s) would lead to increased reliability for a test.| Determine which of the following steps would most likely lead to an increase in the reliability estimate for a test: * Increasing the number of persons tested from 500 to 1,000. * Selecting items so that half were very difficult and half very easy * Increasing the length of the test with more of the same kinds of items * Increasing the homogeneity of the group of subjects tested.| Synthesis Students are able to take various pieces of information and form a whole creating a pattern where one did not previously exist. Action verbs to help write objectives or exam questions for this domain: combine, compile, compose, construct, create, design, develop, devise, formulate, integrate, modify, organize, plan, propose, rearrange, reorganize, revise, rewrite, tell, write. Example Learning objectives| Exam questions| The students will write a different but plausible ending to a short story.| Develop one plausible ending for all three short stories below.| After studying the current economic policies of the United States, student groups will design their own goals for fiscal and monetary policies.| Working in your groups and considering the current economic policies of the US that we have been studying, develop your goals for employment, price levels, and rate of real economic growth for the next three years. Write these goals on the newsprint and be ready to discuss why your goals are feasible.| The students will design a series of chemical operations to separate quantitatively the elements in a solution.| In the lab, you will be given a solution to analyze to see what elements make up the solution. Then design a series of chemical operations to separate quantitatively the elements in the solution.| Evaluation Involves studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ ability to look at someone elseÃ¢â¬â¢s ideas or principles and see the worth of the work and the value of the conclusions. Action verbs to help write objectives or exam questions for this domain: appraise, assess, compare, conclude, contrast, criticize, discriminate, evaluate, judge, justify, support, weigh. Example Learning objectives| Exam questions| The students will use the principles of socialism to evaluate the US economic system.| Using the basic principles of socialism discussed in this course, evaluate the US economic system by providing key arguments to support your judgment.| Given any research study, evaluate the appropriateness of the conclusions reached based on the data presented.| For years, misinformation about negative effects of aspartame has proliferated on the internet. The committee evaluated peer-reviewed research from the scientific literature on this topic and concluded: Ã¢â¬Å"Aspartame consumption is not associated with adverse effects in the general populationÃ¢â¬ . Ã¢â¬â Given the data weÃ¢â¬â¢ve looked at on this topic, evaluate how appropriate this conclusion is and defend your answer.| The students will compare two pieces of sculpture, giving reasons for their positive evaluation of one over the other.| Two pieces of sculpture from different eras and artists are displayed. Study these two pieces, use the compare-contrast method to determine which piece you prefer and write a 2-3 page report that describes your thinking process as you studied these pieces. Utilize the skills you have learned as we have studied various pieces of sculpture over the past two weeks.| Advantages of using learning objectives The writing of learning objectives focuses attention away from content and onto the students. This re-focusing often produces revisions in teaching methods. 1. Managing instruction: Objectives may be used by instructors and students to sort and direct learners and learning activities. They may be used for systematic pre-testing, allowing into the course students who demonstrate the required pre-requisite behaviors, redirecting to remedial work those who lack the pre-requisites, skipping ahead those who already have acquired the behaviors that the unit is designed to teach. 2. 3. Managing learning: Whereas management of instruction implies that the control rests with the instructor, management of learning suggests a more active role by the student. Students can use objectives to guide their learning efforts Ã¢â¬â choosing appropriate materials, reading selectively, etc. Objectives can also be used for self-evaluation which may direct the studentÃ¢â¬â¢s efforts (e.g., skipping ahead or reviewing). When students are involved in determining objectives they develop an awareness of the difficulties in defining what it is they want to learn and of choosing from among equally attractive options. 4. Planning instruction: Once you have developed learning objectives for a course you can more rationally sequence instruction, allot time to topics, assemble materials, prepare outlines and booklists, etc. Learning objectives can also be used as a guide to teaching, as when you plan different instructional methods for presenting various types of content based on the desired learning outcomes (e.g., small-group editing of reports to give students experience in evaluating content logic and correct usage). A re-examination of course content may result from a look at the learning objectives for the course. After comparing previous examinations with your newly developed learning objectives, you may discover that you have been testing materials which are illustrative, but which are not really essential to the studentsÃ¢â¬â¢ mastery of the content/concepts. 5. Enhancing learning: If the student has a set of learning objectives which provide information about the content to be learned and the way in which he/she will have to demonstrate adequate knowledge, that student can make more appropriate choices about study methods and content emphasis. 6. Facilitating evaluation: Learning objectives can facilitate various evaluation activities, evaluating students, evaluating instruction, evaluating the curriculum. They can form the basis for grading or for determining levels of competence in a mastery learning system. They can also be used to demonstrate effective teaching by matching student learning, as measured by exams, etc., to the desired outcomes. 7. Aiding in communication with others: There is a need to communicate learning objectives to others: between instructor and student, with TAs, with other instructors. For example, exchanging learning objectives within departments is the most specific way to communicate to oneÃ¢â¬â¢s colleagues what you really cover in your course. An objectives exchange might reduce redundancy in the curriculum. 8. Designing or redesigning curriculum: If you intend to improve instruction in a particular course, you usually begin with the learning objectives for that course and program outcomes for the program and work backwards. * Sets of learning objectives for one course may be compared with the expected entry behaviors for the next course in the sequence. The two should interlock; where they do not, curriculum adjustments can be made. * Study of the existing curriculum can draw attention to redundancy and omissions that can lead to curriculum revision. 9. Producing new insights: The process of clarifying objectives may produce major changes in those who engage in the effort. For example, instructors who spend time developing learning objectives are said to acquire increased understanding about what is a feasible goal. When more general goals are explicitly identified, many specific sub-goals emerge. Since it may not be possible to reach all the sub-goals, a hierarchy or Ã¢â¬Å"trade-off systemÃ¢â¬ of goals must be produced.
Friday, January 3, 2020
Almost every parent worries about their childÃ¢â¬â¢s wellbeing as they grow up, whether it be that it is their first child or not. As human beings, we are born as social creatures from the day we get out of the womb and it is our caretakers that teach us how to adapt to their cultures way of life and make connections. People make these connections through various things such as verbal speech, symbols, and writings that are pasted down through the generations of time. All of these things can be classified as language, which is a way we make connections with each other. Children are able to learn this language with their ever growing cognitive development. Cognitive development is the process in which the mind processes things. The brain gets new information and then classifies that information. Moral development is how we understand and perceive the things that we learn. Our morals are what shape us as people; they are the very gateway that helps form our thoughts and personality. Together a childÃ¢â¬â¢s cognitive, language and moral development help guide them to understand their world around them. In 1972 Walt Disney recreated the classic tale of the three little pigs, a story of about three brother pigs and a hungry wolf. In Walt DisneyÃ¢â¬â¢s version the three little pigs are told that they are old enough to move out of their motherÃ¢â¬â¢s house, which is down the bottom of a hill. While all three pigs agree with their mother they were completely unaware of the wolf that lived up top ofShow MoreRelatedDeveloping Management Skills404131 Words Ã |Ã 1617 Pagesmymanagementlab is an online assessment and preparation solution for courses in Principles of Management, Human Resources, Strategy, and Organizational Behavior that helps you actively study and prepare material for class. Chapter-by-chapter activities, including built-in pretests and posttests, focus on what you need to learn and to review in order to succeed. Visit www.mymanagementlab.com to learn more. DEVELOPING MANAGEMENT SKILLS EIGHTH EDITION David A. Whetten BRIGHAM YOUNG UNIVERSITY
Thursday, December 26, 2019
Throughout history, beauty has been seen as a value to humans. Beauty practices start as far back as foot binding and continues up to today with cosmetic surgeries such as liposuction. On every billboard, magazine, and commercial citizens are reminded that they are not as physically attractive as they could be and there is a solutions to their problem. In his analysis of beauty, Kant states that beauty is morality. Despite the fact physical beauty is highly valued in society, it is not the driving factor when it comes to determining morality and making ethical judgments. To support this, I will be introducing AristotleÃ¢â¬â¢s virtue ethics and David HumeÃ¢â¬â¢s A Treatise of Human Nature to demonstrate that beauty is independent of virtue and doesÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦One must be accountable for his or her actions as he or she is in control of them. He continues, Ã¢â¬Å". . . we are masters of our actions from the beginning right to the end, if we know the particular f acts, but though we control the beginning of our states of character the gradual progress is not obvious, any more than it is in illness; because it was in our power . . . to act in this way or not . . therefore the states are voluntary.Ã¢â¬ Aristotle explains that humans makes decisions of how to behave meaning they have control over their actions. Because actions are voluntary, a virtuous individual must be accountable for their actions, good or bad, in order to be truly virtuous. Humans still live by this principle today. Parents punish their kids when they behave badly in order to teach them that their behavior was bad and that they need to take responsibility for their actions. On a larger scale, humans have a judiciary system set in place to punish those that act immorally and do not take responsibility for their actions. In KantÃ¢â¬â¢s argument, he states that beauty is virtue, however, Aristotle disproves Kant stating that virtue is defined by oneÃ¢â¬â¢s actions and the responsibility taken for those actions as they are voluntary. Beauty is not an action let alone an action that is voluntary. IfShow MoreRelatedThe Picture of Dorian Grey, by Oscar Wilde771 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesstandards? With ideal appearances and superficial beauty, a decorated life can seem easier and more luxurious than a moral life. Leading a moral life is not as appealing to most people; and is filled with hardships and trouble over Ã¢â¬Å"doing the right thingÃ¢â¬ . One quality cannot be held without losing the other, due to their conflicting natures. While the novel The Picture of Dorian Gray brings out the central question Ã¢â¬Å"Is it better to pursue Aesthetics or Morality?Ã¢â¬ it describes the life of Dorian Gray, whoRead MoreKant : The Father Of Enlightenment1071 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesdeeply rooted in tradition. This new rational way of thinking used logic to arrive at conclusions. Immanuel Kant, a German philosopher, was one of the primary figures of this era that cultivated reason and whose works have revolutionized modern philosophy to this day and age. The term Ã¢â¬ËEnlightenmentÃ¢â¬â¢ is used to describe this period because of Immanuel KantÃ¢â¬â¢s essay,Ã¢â¬ Answering the Question: What is Enlightenment?Ã¢â¬ Kant states that,Ã¢â¬ Enlightenment is the human beingÃ¢â¬â¢s emergence from his self incurredRead MoreBranches of Philosophy Essay980 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesBranches of Philosophy Professor John Wise American Intercontinental University Thesis This essay project with answer different questions to the six branches of Philosophy. The branches are Metaphysics-is something real? Epistemology-How do we know? Ethics-What is right or wrong? Aesthetics- Is something beautiful? Political- What government is best? And Social-Read MoreThe Uncensored Picture Of Dorian Gray Analysis823 Words Ã |Ã 4 Pagesconflict between morality and giving into temptation. The three characters equally represent the difference in the class structure of society. The character of Henry Wotton represents the wealthy, proper man of society during the Victorian era in the novel, whose ideologies encompasses hedonism. Henry as the older man in the novel, appears bitter and resentful that time has taken a toll on his person and he can no longer enjoy the full pleasures of life. Ã¢â¬Å"When your beauty goes, your beauty will go withRead MoreMetaphysics The nature of reality is a perennial topic in metaphysics because it has no1100 Words Ã |Ã 5 Pagesis touted to be greater than ever, and this has left wondering; what are the limits of human understanding? There are no limits of human understanding. Ethics The meaning of ethics is hard to pin down, but most people describe it as a branch of philosophy concerned with concerned with whatÃ¢â¬â¢s right or wrong. But, whatÃ¢â¬â¢s the right thing to do? I encounter this question in situations whereby most people accept standards that are considered to be right, but in a morally corrupt society, ethical thingsRead MoreThe (Shallow) Picture of Dorian Gray Essay example1159 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesOscar WildeÃ¢â¬â¢s The Picture of Dorian Gray presents a keen question on morality: can one cleanse the senses by the means of the soul, and the soul by the means of the senses? Dorian Gray lives out this epigram of Lord HenryÃ¢â¬â¢s in an attempt to justify a life of hedonism and over-objectification of beauty. Wilde introduces Dorian as a young man whose beauty rivals the Ã¢â¬Å"invention of the oil paintingÃ¢â¬ itself (Wilde 7). Basil Hallward, the painter, claims that Dorian is Ã¢â¬Å"absolutely necessaryÃ¢â¬ to himRead MoreCharacter Analysis Of Dorian Gray1398 Words Ã |Ã 6 Pagesneed of some sanctity. No one else had the knowledge of his heinous crime and so, he had to make do with consoling himself. He had fallen very far down from where he started. He had committed innumerable sins and he was paying the price with his morality and mental health. All the indentions to his soul from his heinous acts which were supposed to be reflected on his face were transferred to the portrait in his stead. But it worsened things ironic to the hope that it would alleviate matters. TheRead MoreBranches of Philosophy983 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesThe Branches of Philosophy Joe Bess AIU Online Abstract There are six branches of philosophy, they are Metaphysics, Epistemology, Ethics, Aesthetics, Political, and Social. Each one of these branches asks a particular question that we seek the knowledge of ourselves, unknown to us probably every day of our lives. The Branches of Philosophy The six branches of philosophy are metaphysics, epistemology, ethics, aesthetics, political, and social. In dealing with each branch they ask certainRead MoreOscar Wilde s The Picture Of Dorian Gray1544 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesWilde did in fact push boundaries using Ã¢â¬Å"dangerous paradoxesÃ¢â¬ to challenge the ethical based literature that was the norm but also brought about a snap shot of who Wilde possibly was. WildeÃ¢â¬â¢s use of paradox in his novel expressed and tested the philosophy of aesthetics. The characters in the novel are seen through WildeÃ¢â¬â¢s own morals but the fate of each character is influenced in opposing dualistic meanings. The Picture of Dorian Gray was written around the concept of aesthetics in a time where literatureRead MorePhilosophy Is The Idea Of Knowing One s Mind By Asking The Simplest Question1494 Words Ã |Ã 6 PagesPhilosophy is the idea of knowing oneÃ¢â¬â¢s mind by asking the simplest questions. ItÃ¢â¬â¢s a love of wisdom, which originated in Ancient Greece around 2500 BCE. In philosophy, people undertake a journey to discovering and understanding the fundamental truths about; themselves, the world, and relationships both personal and public. Philosophers like Plato believed that our ideas influence the way we live, and therefore offered a simple yet practical approach to wisdom. As over time, philosophers have
Wednesday, December 18, 2019
Melancholy in Hamletnbsp;nbsp; Melancholy has caused many to look down on the world and themselves, driving themselves to suicide or treating their life like it has no meaning. Hamlet is a lonely and melancholic soul who doesnt think highly of women or his own life. Melancholy forms the basis of Hamlets character starting with the moment he arrives in Denmark and hitting a low note when Ophelia dies. Thoughts of suicide loomed throughout the play commencing with the news of old Hamlets death and showing in his To be or not to be soliloquy. Throughout the entire play, Hamlet has various opinions and views, which show how he disrespects women, especially the one he should love the most, his mother. All of these character traitsÃ¢â¬ ¦show more contentÃ¢â¬ ¦Hamlet shows the reader that although melancholy has entered into his soul and that everything that he loved left him, he will still do anything to sanctify what has been corrupted with his hidden perseverance. His first thought of suicide comes up in his first soliloquy when he says, O that this too too sullied flesh would melt, thaw, and resolve itself into a dew, or that the Everlasting had not fixed his canon gainst self-slaughter, (I; ii; 129-132). Hamlet is unable to kill himself because of a proposed law that states you are not permitted to kill yourself. Hamlet opts to stay alive, as he does not want to be known as a coward in Denmark. Foreshadowing is used in this scene to inform the audience that Hamlet will live to correct the wrong doings of Denmark. Hamlet makes another reference to ending his life when he says To be or not to be - that is the question: Whether tis nobler in the mind to suffer the slings and arrows of outrageous fortune or to take arms against a sea of troubles and by opposing end them, (III; i; 56-60). He contemplates suicide by comparing it to dreams and that to sleep, saying death would end the heartache and dreams tis a consummation devoutly to be wished (III; i; 63-64). He, again, prefers to live, to avenge the death of his father. Hamlet is also afraid of the afterlife, seeing the dread of something after death and theShow MoreRelated Melancholy Hamlet Essay1977 Words Ã |Ã 8 PagesMelancholy HamletÃ Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã In ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s tragic drama, Hamlet, the multi-faceted character of the hero is so complex that this essay will enlighten the reader on only one aspect of his personality Ã¢â¬â his melancholy dimension. Ã Our understanding of the true extent of the protagonistÃ¢â¬â¢s melancholic mental state needs to be informed. A.C. Bradley in Shakespearean Tragedy presents convincing evidence regarding the true depth of the heroÃ¢â¬â¢s melancholy sentiment: Ã Hamlet and HoratioRead More Hamlet, the Melancholy One Essay3212 Words Ã |Ã 13 PagesHamlet, the Melancholy One Ã Ã Ã ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s tragedy Hamlet features the most famous protagonist in English literature Ã¢â¬â Hamlet. Inseparable from his character is the melancholy which permanently afflicted him. This essay concerns itself with this aspect of Hamlet. Ã Harry Levin explains the choices open to the melancholy hero in the General Introduction to The Riverside Shakespeare: Ã The explanation of Hamlet, Ã¢â¬Å"What a piece of work is a man!Ã¢â¬ (II.ii.303), carries an ironicRead MoreHamlet, By William Shakespeare Essay1559 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesHamlet, by William Shakespeare, focuses on the life of Prince Hamlet and his quarrels with: death, despair, deceit with the demented definitions of our dimension. Shakespeare, rather than reduce his Hamlet to simply a Ã¢â¬Ëmelancholy princeÃ¢â¬â¢ enables him to slide along the spectrum of melancholy and joy, celebrating the diffÃ ©rence of that binary, moreover bringing the character to a death he both craves and fears. Hamlet lives in the extreme of death notwithstanding deceit: with his uncle/Claudius, killingRead MoreHamlet : Five Acts Of Acting844 Words Ã |Ã 4 PagesHamlet: Five Acts of Acting William ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Hamlet, is a dramatic play, or perhaps a number of plays within a play. Hamlet himself is the greatest actor throughout the play. The acting motif, used in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s play Hamlet, is mirrored through practically every scene and affects each character. Hamlet definitely acts throughout the play, although it is passionately debated whether or not his Ã¢â¬ËmadnessÃ¢â¬â¢ is fictitious. Hamlet may be actingÃ¢â¬âattempting to concoct this madness as part of a revengeRead MoreThe Discourse Of Shakespeare s Hamlet ( Rough Draft )1564 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Discourse of Dance in ShakespeareÃ¢â¬â¢s Hamlet (Rough Draft) Alan Brissenden, a noted dance critic and Shakespearean scholar, asserts that Ã¢â¬Å"when Shakespeare uses dance it always contributes to plot, character, or imagery, and sometimes to all of these at one time (Ã¢â¬Å"JacobeanÃ¢â¬ 249). In the comedies, dance is used in the first few acts of the play to create an atmosphere of dramatic irony: dance, in its fundamental purpose in the Elizabethan and Jacobean theater was to create a sense of harmony andRead MoreCharacter Analysis Of Hamlet In Hamlet730 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesHamlet is a character of melancholy because he is a very sad individual finding out that his very own uncle has killed his father. He is wanting to commit suicide but heÃ¢â¬â¢s contemplating it because it is a sin. He is not to fond of Claudius considering he was the one that had killed his father in the first place. Ã¢â¬Å"O most wicked speed, to post/ With such dexterity to incestuous sheets!/ It is not nor it cannot come to good/ But break my heart, for I m ust hold my tongueÃ¢â¬ This quote is showing how heRead MoreUnderstanding the Mind of Hamlet with His Soliloquies Essay678 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesUnderstanding the Mind of Hamlet with His Soliloquies The term soliloquy is a literary or dramatic form of discourse, within which a character talks to himself and reveals his inner thoughts without addressing a listener. Hamlet uses soliloquies to express his feelings towards his dead father and self loathing to the reader of the play but to none of the characters within it. Hamlet has a complex character and it is important for the audience to be able to understandRead MoreEssay on The Destruction of Love Between Hamlet and Ophelia1643 Words Ã |Ã 7 PagesThe Destruction of Love Between Hamlet and Ophelia Ã Ã Ã Ã Ã Ophelia describes Hamlet as the courtiers soldier, scholars eye, tongue and sword, Thexpectancy and rose of fair state, the glass of fashion and the mould of form, Thobserved of all observers (Act 3 Scene 1) He is the ideal man. But, after his madness and the death of her father she sees him as a noble mind oer thrown! (Act 3 Scene 1). Ophelia suffers from Hamlets disillusionment; his attitude to her in Act 3 Scene 1 isRead MoreTragedy: Shakespeares Hamlet and Fitzgeralds The Great Gatsby1007 Words Ã |Ã 5 PagesIn the play Hamlet by William Shakespeare and the novel The Great Gatsby by F. Scott Fitzgerald, the objective is to divulge the quintessence of humanity. Although the protagonists in both works of literature have drastically different journeys that lead to climactic endings, the use of plot is to demonstrate that the essence of mankind is ultimately a tragedy if great care is not taken. Both Hamlet and Jay Gatsby are unable to focus on the reality o f the situation, and rather waste valuable timeRead MoreHamlet is one of the most intriguing and perplexing characters ever created. Some people see Hamlet700 Words Ã |Ã 3 PagesHamlet is one of the most intriguing and perplexing characters ever created. Some people see Hamlet as a witty, heroic and brave while others see him as irrational, corrupt and cowardly. To me, what makes Hamlet so intriguing is that he has all of these characteristics. He ends up being relatable to every reader because the reader tends to somewhat understand Hamlet on a personal level at different points in the book. What makes Hamlet so confusing is that he seems to change every time we read about
Tuesday, December 10, 2019
Question: Is Formal Ethics Training in Organizations Merely Cosmetic? Answer: Formal ethics can be understood as Ethical principles and its study which is based on the golden rule of Treat others the way you want to be treated. It is also based on the ethical theories of Kant and Hare. It involves the concepts of racism, moral education and many other social concerns. In many countries the government is providing firms with the funds to develop formal ethics so that it can ultimately promote the ethical culture of the organisations and to decrease the offenses and crimes at the workplace. But this is often criticised by many of the authors that these kinds of ethics programs are merely cosmetic (Webley and Werner, 2008). It means that these programs do not solve the purpose but are the show-off. Ethics are the actions and standards which influence humans to act well and make a difference between right or wrong and ethics in business is something which influences the practices, methods and interactions with each other at the workplace. The essay will include th e study about the formal ethics program in different organisation and its results. The impacts of the formal ethics program on the culture of organisation are evaluated to see whether it actually make any sense or it is merely cosmetic. The findings of the essay will be based on the study of theories, concepts and practices which raise the formal ethical behaviour in the organisations. Ethics is all about the fair and good practices followed in the personal and professional life. Ethics is developed at the workplace and in the personal life through theories and experience. There are different factors which affect business ethics and their influence. These factors include the individual characteristics of the employees, intensity of the issues created in the organisations and the development of the country. There is even the relationship between ethics and law. On one hand, where law establishes minimum standards, ethics extends the minimum domain. There are certain business activities which are legal but are unethical and vice versa (Johnson, 2015). Ethical training is the concept used in the organisations which helps in training the individuals to take decisions in any given situation. As per Dobrin (2012), ethics and law are not same but they are different and interconnected with each other. The legal considerations always affect the ethical decisions of the individuals. Ethical training and education is must for the companies. It does not only help in building up professional etiquettes but also helps in facing the trouble. There are many associations which formulate the professional code of conduct and help the employees in understanding the professional codes which they should follow in their routine activities. But is not so easy to deal with the ethics education that means it is not easy to implement these set of values. There are number of reasons behind it (Richardson, 2014). The foremost reason is that it is tough to make people believe that they lack in ethics and they need to be educated for it. Another reason is tha t the people who are given this training are the busy professionals who need real and immediate solutions for the practical problems at the workplace. Ethics is a long term benefit program in which immediate actions is not always gained. The take away benefit from the ethical training program is not always instant rather it is time taking procedure. It is not easy for people to deal with the values and related training. They might fear with the controversy they might face while getting engaged with the ethical training programs but there are some way outs through which the ethical training can be a success (Rossouw, et al., 2010). Ethical decision making is essential in business which is done with the consensus of everyone in the organisation. Also, the ethical decisions making is affected by the personal variables like personal values, characteristics, character or identity, also by the situational variables like culture of the organisation, climate and the industry. So basically, both the individual characteristics and the organisational characteristics are the influencers of the ethical decision making in an organisation. Ethics are the principles of human conduct and it determines how an individual should react or behave in an organisation. Ethics are relevant to the professionals and so do ethical training (George, 2011). There are some theories which support the training and involvement of formal ethics in the organisations. There are different ethical theories like Virtue ethics, Duty ethics, Right ethics, Utilitarianism and other theories which show how it is so helpful in determining ethics at the workplace. Different theories are discussed here as under to show their relationship with the use of training in the professional world. Virtue ethics: Virtue ethics can be understood as an approach which highlights the character of an individual. It is the oldest theory which started with Aristotle. The theory suggests that people certainly do the right thing because they have developed various habits. It focuses on the characteristics like responsibility, honesty, competence and loyalty. This theory suggests that the intentions of the person should be good in in good spirit which ensures moral actions from them. The training given to people can be success if the virtues of the employees support them (Abdullah and Valentine, 2009). Duty ethics: Duty ethics can be understood as an approach which focuses on the right or wrong actions of individuals as compared to the right and wrong of the actions of the individuals. Here the moral duties are fundamental and ethical actions are considered as the duty which includes respect for all. The theory suggests that when an individual realises his own duties, there are obvious ethical actions. The person in this theory is considered as a rational person who has no self-interest and has knowledge about the society and human psychology. The theory is basically based on two principles, the first one is that every person is allowed to have liberty without restricting others and one can be more beneficial for society and economy than others. Right Ethics: Right ethics is an approach to the ethical theory in which is it believed that humans have the right to life and property. The theory suggests that the humans have right to show the concern for other people and they also have basic community rights. There are some negative and positive rights. Negative rights is when a person gets an entitlement to be left alone and get privacy and positive rights is when an individual gets right to attain something like right to education or medical facilities (Abdullah and Valentine, 2009). Theory of utilitarianism: In this theory, it is believed that the theory examines each and every action whether its good or bad, or is creating good for a huge no of people or not. It is all about maximising the goodness for people. It tries to make a balance between the good and bad results and pay attention on the society as a whole instead of focussing on the individuals. Utilitarianism is in different forms which are Act Utilitarianism Rule Utilitarianism, Act Utilitarianism focuses on the actions of the individuals and it suggests that the rules can be broken if its for the good of most of the people. Rule Utilitarianism is when adhering to the moral rules is most important and it is believed that it will lead to the maximisation of benefits for all. It can be considered as rigid in which the rules are to be followed by the people (Secchi, 2007). Through all these theories, it is clear that moral values and the ethics aim at one single thing which is maximising the benefit for all. In the organisations, the formal ethics training also aims at making everyone attentive for following ethics. It can also be evidenced from some of the examples where it has been proved that the formal ethics training is beneficial for good decision making and for creating ethical workplace (Gilman, 2005). As per the survey conducted by Johnson (2015), a question was asked that is the formal ethics program effective in inserting the ethical values in the culture and behaviour of the organisation. It is found that the impact of training programmes is different in different countries. This may be because it depends on the individual characteristics and perceptions. The main findings suggest that in the formal ethics programs has brought a change in the employee honesty and integrity at the workplace (Meinert, 2014). This shows that the practice of ethics training has grown over the years. The survey shows that the employees are aware of the ethics awareness programmes taking place in the organisations. In Britain, the survey showed that the organisations where the employee ethics training program took place have shown positive experience of ethics at the workplace. It has shown improvement in the management behaviour, communication, business conduct, enforcement of business standards and better decisions making (Randall, 2012). It is also found that the younger employees are more in expectation of the ethical conduct from the business organisations than the older and experienced employees. This shows that the employees of the age group (16-34) are more aware of the employee ethical training programme (Robinson, 2007). There are surveys which indicated that the training programmes for formal ethics are effective and they play a significant role in giving a positive effect to the decision making in the organisations. Recently, the number of organisations who adopted the training programs on ethics has been increased but only few of the employees believed that it made any difference. Most of the employees were of the view that it is merely a formality which is to be done by the organisations to prove it ethical. For an individual it is harder to be ethical all the time because it creates a pressure to face everyone and the pressure of competition but ethical training can create a culture which is followed by all and is understood by all (Ermongkonchai, 2010). Ethical training at the workplace may not be the best way to approach people and to make them familiar to maintaining ethics. There are other factors which help the employees to follow ethics and to maintain a good and supportive environment at the workplace. There are many factors which are against the support of training for maintaining ethics at workplace. These factors are motivation at the workplace and employee retention (Brink, Cereola Menk, 2015). It is often seen that Motivation given to the employees brings the moral sensitivity in the employees from different perspectives. Motivation includes providing performance reviews, regular meetings, rewards and recognition to the employees, open discussions, regular feedbacks, etc. which enhances the motivation level of the employees and helps in enhancing the moral sensitivity in them. This could generate a feeling of evaluating the own actions in the employees and sharing with others. This also increases the alertness in the emp loyees to handle the issues in the routine decisions of the organisations (Nafei, 2015). Another factor is retention of employees in which the employer/ leaders or managers could practice such methods which drive commitment in the employees and make them responsible for their own actions (Ahmad, et. al., 2014). The organisation could regularly provide the growth opportunities and rewards to the employees which ultimately help in retaining the employees at the workplace. This also creates a feeling of working together as a team and with a positive attitude. If the employees are committed and are strong enough to make a difference between right or wrong, there will be no need of training the employee for formal ethics at the workplace which is time taking and involves cost as well (Arulrajah, 2015). Ethical behaviour requires the consensus of all individuals and welfare of the employees at the workplace which can be gained with the help of motivation methods and practices and the employee retention programmes. This is difficult as making choices between right and easy is d ifficult but once, the employees get this feeling of choosing right from within, it becomes easier for them. Ethical framework is established to review the systems and actions systematically for having a long term perspective and for positively affecting the stakeholders (Morais, et al, 2014). It can be concluded that formal ethics is the one which promotes the culture of making decisions between right or wrong. It is the practice which reduces the number of offences and wrong actions in the organisation. The essay discusses that formal training for the ethics is the method through which the ethics can be maintained at the workplace but it is also criticised by some of the authors. Ethical training and its concepts are discussed in the essay with different theories of ethics which shows that how ethical training is essential for the benefit of the employees and the organisation as a whole. It is criticised that official ethical training is not so effective because people do not take these trainings seriously and they are not in the habit of accepting the good habits because of training and coaching. The statistics are also collected and discussed that how training has helped people to adopt ethics at the workplace. At last, two factors have been discussed i.e. motivation and employee retention practices which against training helps in driving the employee commitment and ultimately helps in establishing ethics at the workplace. The essay discusses that how these factors can work better than the ethics training. I would prefer going with training because the ethics and compliance programs cultivate the ethical culture at the workplace which becomes a part of routine life of the workers and become permanent. References Abdullah, H and Valentine, B 2009, Fundamental and ethics theories of corporate governance,Middle Eastern Finance and Economics,4(4), pp.88-96. Ahmad, S A Yunos, R M, Ahmad, R A R and Sanusi, Z M 2014, Whistleblowing behaviour: The influence of ethical climates theory,Procedia-Social and Behavioral Sciences,164, pp.445-450. Arulrajah, A A 2015, Contribution of human resource management in creating and sustaining ethical climate in the organisations,Sri Lankan Journal of Human Resource Management,5(1). Brink, A G, Cereola, S J Menk, K B 2015, The Effects of Personality Traits, Ethical Position, and the Materiality of Fraudulent Reporting on Entry-level Employee Whistleblowing Decisions, Journal of Forensic Investigative Accounting, Vol. 7, Issue 1. De George, R T 2011,Business ethics, Pearson Education India.] Dobrin, A 2012, Ethics Training Isn't Useful When Taught By Lawyers, Psychology Today. Ermongkonchai, P 2010, Understanding reasons for employee unethical conduct in Thai organizations: A qualitative inquiry,Contemporary Management Research,6(2), p.125. Gilman, S C 2005, Ethics codes and codes of conduct as tools for promoting an ethical and professional public service: Comparative successes and lessons,Washington DC. Johnson, D 2015, Ethics at Work, Institute of Business Ethics. Meinert, D 2014, Creating an Ethical Workplace, Society For Human Resource Management. Morais, U P, Pena, J, Shacket, K, Sintilus, L, Ruiz, R, Rivera, Y and Mujtaba, B G 2014, Managing diverse employees at Starbucks: Focusing on ethics and inclusion,International Journal of Learning and Development,4(3), pp.35-50. Nafei, W 2015, The Influence of Ethical Climate on Job Attitudes: A Study on Nurses in Egypt,International Business Research,8(2), p.83. Randall, D M 2012, Leadership and the use of power: shaping an ethical climate,The Journal of Applied Christian Leadership,6(1), p.28. Richardson, F W 2014,Enhancing strategies to improve workplace performance(Doctoral dissertation, Walden University). Robinson, P 2007, Ethics Training and Development in the Military. Rossouw, D, Van Vuuren, L, Ghani, A H A. and Adam, M Z A 2010,Business ethics, Oxford University Press Southern Africa. Secchi, D 2007, Utilitarian, managerial and relational theories of corporate social responsibility,International Journal of Management Reviews,9(4), pp.347-373. Webley, S and Werner, A 2008, Corporate codes of ethics: Necessary but not sufficient,Business Ethics: A European Review,17(4), pp.405-415.
Monday, December 2, 2019
Vigee Le Brun Elizabeth-Louise Vigee-Le Brun is noted as a very prominent woman/artist in the World of the Eighteenth Century art. She is known for her work as a portrait painter. Her most famous works are included in the series that she had painted at age twenty-four of Queen Marie-Antoinette. Vigee-Le Brun was a woman of so many talents. Before she died at eighty-seven years old, she was an accomplished artist, exceptional musician, and a loving mother to her daughter Julie. Vigee-Le Brun was an unusually unattractive woman. She was charming and self-confident with an ability to present her sitters' personas most advantageously. Vigee-Le Brun was very reputable because she managed to keep her head and professional reputation in a time of political upheaval. (French Revolution). This allowed her to gain fame in France, Italy, Austria, and Russia. Vigee-Le Brun was such an endowed artist that by the age of fifteen she could have supported herself and her family, if her funds weren't taken away from her by her stepfather and unruly husband. Just nine years later she began her most famous portrait series of Marie-Antoinette. This series included "Marie-Antoinette and her children at Versailles -1788," (shown below) the last portrait of thirty that Vigee-Le Brun painted of the doomed queen. This painting still hangs at Versailles. Louis XVI said to Vigee-Le Brun, " I have no knowledge of painting, but you make me fond of it." (Levey 280). Notice the painting shown on the pervious page. Vigee-Le Brun was a painter of the Rococo period. Rococo is best described as an eighteenth century art style that placed emphasis on portraying the carefree life of the aristocracy rather than on grand heroes or pious martyrs. Love and romance were considered to be better subjects for art than historical or religious subjects. The style was characterized by a free, graceful movement; a playful use of line; and delicate colors. This is represented it the work "Marie-Antoinette and her children at Versailles -1788." To describe the work in great detail you must first look at Marie-Antoinette. Her complexion is very fair and she is portrayed as an extremely feminine woman. Her femininity is also shown by her dress. The dress is a rich, red color with a low neckline, and surrounded by lace and ribbons. This could represent a "life-line" between Marie-Antoinette and the youngest of her children because the baby boy is holding on to it for support. All babies need to feel this closeness with their mothers. Vigee-Le Brun could have used that to show Marie-Antoinette as a good motherly figure to the other mothers whom would have seen this work. Another symbol of her motherliness is shown because she is holding her children next to what could be the bed of one of the children, most likely the baby's crib. The dress is harboring a skirt that is more than enough trouble for Marie-Antoinette to handle in one day. This gown is a representation of the aristocracy and of a woman's power. She is wearing a large, matching hat with overbearing feathers. This is also a representation of power. The hat is a frequent characteristic in the series of Marie-Antoinette. Another characteristic of the series is shown by Marie-Antoinette's legs and feet being rested upon a very decorated pillow. This could show that she was of the aristocracy and her feet should be above the dirt on the floor. Now we move on to the children in the painting. They are all wearing fancy clothes, just as children of the aristocracy would. The oldest child is looking up with a gaze in her eyes of admiration for her mother. She looks as if she is being shown as a young Marie-Antoinette. The young girl's dress is also like that of her mother's. It too, is a deep red color with a small outline of lace and ribbon around the neck. The dress has an added bow around the waist. This is done to show the dress as a dress of less maturity. The daughter does look like a young version of her mother, yes; but she can not be shown as overly mature because she is still a young lady. The bow simply down plays the power because of the child-like characteristic. The baby boy in the picture is, as noted in the first paragraph, holding onto his mother with an urgency to fulfill the need of the mother's love and presence. The young boy, the middle child, is standing next to the crib of the baby
Wednesday, November 27, 2019
Aberdeen Maritime Museum Essay Example Aberdeen Maritime Museum Essay Aberdeen Maritime Museum Essay The purpose of this report is to provide a critical analysis of the existing communications strategy at Aberdeen Maritime Museum, and recommend future promotional activity. This will be done through an investigation of the museums target market, the current communications strategy used, a possible future communication strategy and ways to evaluate it. Conclusions will then be drawn. The Information needed for this report was gathered from textbooks, journals, the Internet and an interview with John Edwards, Aberdeen Maritime Museums Keeper of Science and Maritime History which took place on Monday 4th November. Museum Background Aberdeen Maritime Museum has been part of the citys heritage for numerous years. Prior to 1984 it was situated in a basement room of Cowdray Hall before it moved to Provost Ross House. 1998 saw the opening of a Ã £4million extension to the museum in its own purposely built building, (a converted church and empty plot next to Provost Ross House) making the museum five times its previous size. Today the museum is a very popular attraction within the city with 81,460 visitors last year (Evening Express, 14 March 2002). The museum has been ranked 24th out of 360 museums in Scotland. (www.scottishmuseums.org.uk). The museum has also won a five star award from Scottish Tourist Board. This is awarded to establishments who are exceptional. Target Market Segmentation is The division of the market into customer subsets, one or more of which becomes the target market, each with a distinct marketing mix (Turnbull, 2002). Therefore, target marketing is the process whereby specific segments are selected and marketing plans are developed to satisfy the needs of the potential buyers in the chosen segment (Fill, 2002) The museum targets local people as it contains local history. (90% of the objects inside the museum have been donated by local people (Edwards, 2002)) Segmenting people by this method is called geographic segmentation as the target market is in a specific area. School children and 16-24 year olds are the museums main audiences. The main reason for this is due to the large number of educational visits. Segmenting by age is known as demographics. Demographics can be defined as dividing the market into groups based upon demographic variables such as age, gender, occupation, education, religion, race and nationality. (Kother and Armstrong, 2001) Therefore the museums main target market (school children and 16-24 year olds in the Aberdeen area) is segmented by geo-demographics (a combination of geographic and demographic segmentation) Business tourism is also a fast growing market, with an increase in conference and exhibitions. The Maritime Museum offers conference facilities that are growing in popularity. This could be because its classed as an unusual venue. Previous users of the conference facilities have included Grampian Police and major oil and computer companies. This market could be segmented on the basis of demographics the museum is targeting professionals looking for a venue to hold their conference. The museum also has customers who visit the museum to use the shop and the cafe facilities. This group of visitors would be segmented and targeted based on their behaviour traits. Overseas visitors to the city are not specifically targeted. Most visitors knowledgeable about the museum find out information via the Visit Scotland. The Maritime Museums target market of local people could be broken down into more specific segments such as schoolchildren, 16 24 year olds and professionals looking for conference facilities. Other segments such as retired people and families could also be considered. Current Communication Strategy Marketing communication is a management process through which an organisation enters into a dialogue with its various audiences (Fill, 2002). The main communication methods used to achieve communication are advertising, direct marketing, sales promotion, exhibitions, packaging/design, personal selling, sponsorship, merchandising/point of sale, corporate identity, public relations and word of mouth. Advertising Advertising can be defined as any paid form of non-personal presentation and promotion of ideas, goods or services. (Kotler and Armstrong, 2001) With an advertising budget of Ã £10,000 per year, the museum can not afford any large-scale advertising activity. Currently the museum advertises locally through a leaflet produced by Aberdeen Art Gallery and Museums called the Diary. The leaflet highlights exhibitions and whats going on in the Art Gallery, Provost Skene House and the Maritime Museum. (Appendix 1.) The Diary could be described as an arts marketing consortia a regular forum for joint marketing (Freeman 1997) The benefits of this include reduced advertising costs, and reaching people who are unaware of the museum. The museum produces its own leaflet, but it is unavailable outside the museum. This is because it is primarily used for orientation around the museum. The museum also invests in advertising in a leaflet called North-East Scotlands Coastal Trail. (Appendix 2) There are over 200,000 leaflets produced, so it reaches a large number of people at a relatively low cost. (Edwards 2002) The small marketing budget means that the museum can not afford to have regular adverts in the local press. However, they are considering advertising in either the Press and Journal or the Evening Express each week in the same space to that people will become aware of the advert, then visit the museum. The only form of outdoor advertising that the museum partakes in is a banner outside the museum. Another form of advertising is through the Maritime Museums web page (www.aagm.co.uk), this is known as interactive advertising. Significant investment into Visit Scotland (www.visitscotland.com) is also made. In doing this the museum a reach a world-wide audience. Direct Marketing Kotler and Armstrong (2001) define direct marketing as a direct communication with carefully targeted individual consumers to obtain an immediate response and cultivate lasting customer relationships. The Friends of Aberdeen Art Gallery and Museums could be described as direct marketing. As well as providing funds to the AAGM, members receive invitations to functions and exhibition openings, mailings of information, and discount on selected items from the shops. (Appendix 3) Sales Promotion Sales promotion seeks to offer buyers additional value as an inducement to generate an immediate sale. (Fill, 2002) As the Maritime Museum offers a free service, sales promotion is not used. However, in 1998 until 2000, the museum introduced entry charges. Consequently, the number of visitors dropped by 75% (Edwards, 2002), so were therefore abolished. Sales promotion could have been used during this period, for example a family of four could have paid entry fees for two adults and the children got in free. Packaging/Design Packaging and design is concerned with the designing and producing the container or wrapper for a product. (Kotler and Armstrong, 2001) This communication method does not play apart in the museums strategy as they offer a service. Personal Selling Personal selling is a form of marketing communication that involves a face-to-face dialogue between two persons or by one person and a group. (Fill, 2002). Again this method does not play a part in the museums communication strategy. Sponsorship Fill (2002) defines sponsorship as a commercial activity whereby one party permits another an opportunity to exploit an association with a target audience in return for funds, services or resources. The museum does not sponsor anything it does however hold Techfest and activity weekends during the summer holidays for children (their target audience). Benefits of doing this include increased visitor numbers and increased awareness of the museum.. Merchandising/Point of Sale Merchandising is done at the museums shop, which sells goods such as pens, pencils and stickers that all contain the museums name Corporate Identity Corporate identity is simply the awareness, perception and attitudes held by an organisations various stakeholders (Fill, 2002) The museum finds out about its image by survey sheets which they have had for the last four years, and also by notes left in the visitor books which are placed throughout the museum. The museum is also conscious that the average shopper is not aware of the museum, but to find out exact figures, they would need to carry out expensive market research done by experts. Public Relations / Publicity In the March 1997 edition of the Museum Journal, Sarah Freeman stated during this time of cutbacks, aggressive political manoeuvres and market saturation, museums have started looking for allies to help them reach out to the public and convince audiences that are vital and worthwhile. The best way for museums to do this is through public relations. Public relations (PR) is about building up good relations with the companys various publics by obtaining favourable publicity (Kotler and Armstrong, 2001) Whenever a new exhibition is introduced into the Maritime Museum, a press release is sent to the local newspapers, which will then possibly run an editorial on it. This benefits the museum as it costs nothing but will also increase visitor numbers, raise support, influence people, establish a professional reputation and target audiences that are hard to reach (Freeman 1997) PR also has its downfalls. Main stories may only make it to newspapers and TV (local, regional or national) if there has been a disaster, a visit from a famous person, or a wacky or topical story. If there is important news on the same day as the museums editorial, the museum story is likely to be dropped, so it is very vulnerable. (Freeman 1997)